Health Services Research (HSR) Methods
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A systematic (consistent, non-random) error that results in over or under-estimation of a parameter. Bias reflects the degree to which the statistic inaccurately measures the parameter that it is intended to estimate.


Further Reading
Berger, M. et al. 2003. Health Care, Cost, Quality, and Outcomes: ISPOR Book of Terms, Lawrenceville, NJ: International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research.

Gliner, J.A. and G.A. Morgan. 2000. Research Methods in Applied Settings, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Gordis, L. 2000. Epidemiology, 2nd ed., Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Science.