Health Services Research (HSR) Methods
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Hawthorne Effect
Related Terms: Validity; External Validity

A positive chance in the outcome variable in a study that may result from the participants' knowledge that they are being observed. A type of threat to external validity.

Further Reading
Rea, P. 1997. Designing and Conducting Survey Research, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Marczyk, G.R. et al. 2005. Essentials of Research Design and Methodology, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Shi, L. 1997. Health Service Research Methods, Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers.